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Managing client connections

The Squid Backend SDK offers functionality that enables the backend to detect client connections to the server in real-time.

This feature allows you to monitor and manage the connectivity of clients to your Squid backend, giving you the power to:

  • Gain real-time information about client connections and disconnections
  • Understand client connections by leveraging unique client IDs
  • Perform specific actions based on connectivity status

Handling client connections

Squid provides a decorator which can be used to handle a change in a client's connection status. This is achieved by decorating a function with the @clientConnectionStateHandler decorator within a class that extends the base SquidService class. Within this decorator, you can add your business logic to execute the desired behavior.

The @clientConnectionStateHandler decorator takes two parameters:

  • The ClientId that initiated the Squid Client SDK, accepted as a string.
  • The ClientConnectionState that contains the client's current connection status. This can be one of three values:
    • CONNECTED indicates that the client just connected
    • DISCONNECTED indicates that the client just disconnected
    • REMOVED indicates that the client has disconnected and Squid removed their ClientId. This means that the next time the client connects, they will have a new ClientId

Understanding the client connection process

There are a few key steps in the process of utilizing each client's connection to the Squid server:

  1. Whenever a client initially connects, Squid assigns it a unique clientId
  2. Once a user is authenticated, we can link their userId with the corresponding clientId in order to track each user's online status
  3. When a client joins a chatroom, we can insert into a user presence collection and store which clientIds and associated userIds are present in the chatroom
  4. We can detect when a client disconnects using the @clientConnectionStateHandler decorator and update the corresponding user's status to offline
  5. We can detect when a client is removed using the @clientConnectionStateHandler decorator and delete the corresponding user from the user presence collection

Providing each client a unique clientId upon connection enables precise tracking and management of individual users' statuses. This feature allows for the association of userIds with their respective clientIds, facilitating real-time monitoring of client presence.

Connection status on the client

To utilize this flow on the client, Squid provides the following options:

  • squid.connectionDetails().connected: returns a boolean of whether the client is currently connected to the server
  • squid.connectionDetails().observeConnected(): returns an observable that emits true when the client is connected to the server and false when the client is disconnected from the server
  • squid.connectionDetails().clientId: returns the clientId that is assigned to the current client

Connection status on the backend

To utilize this flow on the backend, Squid provides the following options:

  • The @clientConnectionStateHandler decorator, as described above
  • this.context.clientId: returns the id of the client that initiated this request

Chatroom example

The following is a basic example of how to manage this process in a chat application. Using the @clientConnectionStateHandler decorator, the client could get a list of all users that are present in a chatroom and their corresponding statuses (i.e. whether they are online or offline).

Because we can tell which clientIds are connected (but not which userIds), we need to to link each connection's clientId to the corresponding userId in order to track each user's online status.

To do so, we can mutate the presence collection whenever a user joins the chatroom. The collection will contain the clientIds as document IDs, and the data inserted is the userId and their status (which will be online because we are executing the function whenever a user joins).

We can update the collection whenever a user establishes a new connection. The observeConnected() function (which returns true when the client is connected to the server) triggers the mutation once the connection is established:

Client code
type PresenceData = {
userId: string;
status: 'online' | 'offline';


).subscribe(() =>
.insert({ userId, status: 'online' }).then(); // get userId from auth provider

Executing this mutation links clientIds to userIds in order to initialize users' online status.


To read more about Squid and authentication, read our documentation on integrating Squid with authentication providers.

The next step is to monitor users' offline status. This is where the @clientConnectionStateHandler decorator is essential. A clientId becoming DISCONNECTED represents a user logging off the chatroom. Therefore, we need to update the user's status to offline. Additionally, a clientId becoming REMOVED represents a user leaving the chatroom:

Backend code
import { SquidService, clientConnectionStateHandler } from '@squidcloud/backend';
import { ClientConnectionState, ClientId } from '@squidcloud/client';

export class ExampleService extends SquidService {


async handleClientConnectionStateChange(
clientId: ClientId,
connectionState: ClientConnectionState
): Promise<void> {
if (connectionState === 'DISCONNECTED') { // user logged off
await this.squid
.update({ status: 'offline' });
} else if (connectionState === 'REMOVED') { // user left the chat
await this.squid

The client can then query the userPresence collection in order to get a list of users in the chatroom and their statuses.

Below is an example of this process working in real time using Squid + React. This is a basic sample project which treats each tab (clientId) as a new authenticated user:

By understanding how to monitor and react to client connections in Squid, you can manage those connectivity changes more effectively for your use case.